Saturday, March 14, 2020
Memorable Quotes by Steve Biko Steve Biko was one of South Africas most significant political activists and a leading founder of South AfricasÃ Black Consciousness Movement. Read some of his most powerful and inspiring quotes here. On the Black Experience The blacks are tired of standing at the touchlines to witness a game that they should be playing. They want to do things for themselves and all by themselves. Black Consciousness is an attitude of the mind and a way of life, the most positive call to emanate from the black world for a long time. Its essence is the realisation by the black man of the need to rally together with his brothers around the cause of their oppression- the blackness of their skin- and to operate as a group to rid themselves of the shackles that bind them to perpetual servitude. We do not want to be reminded that it is we, the indigenous people, who are poor and exploited in the land of our birth. These are concepts which the Black Consciousness approach wishes to eradicate from the black mans mind before our society is driven to chaos by irresponsible people from Coca-cola and hamburger cultural backgrounds. Black man, you are on your own. So as a prelude whites must be made to realise that they are only human, not superior. Same with Blacks. They must be made to realise that they are also human, not inferior. The basic tenet of black consciousness is that the black man must reject all value systems that seek to make him a foreigner in the country of his birth and reduce his basic human dignity. On Political Activism You are either alive and proud or you are dead, and when you are dead, you cant care anyway. The most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed. Being black is not a matter of pigmentation- being black is a reflection of a mental attitude. It becomes more necessary to see the truth as it is if you realise that the only vehicle for change are these people who have lost their personality. The first step therefore is to make the black man come to himself; to pump back life into his empty shell; to infuse him with pride and dignity, to remind him of his complicity in the crime of allowing himself to be misused and therefore letting evil reign supreme in the country of his birth. Merely by describing yourself as black you have started on a road towards emancipation, you have committed yourself to fight against all forces that seek to use your blackness as a stamp that marks you out as a subservient being.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
The Politics of Development Looks Different at the Grassroots than at the National Level - Essay Example This paper highlights that in many developing countries like Malaysia and Vietnam, governments are ruled by a few elite members of society. Since these government officials do not truly represent the majority of the people, they tend to have narrower visions of development. In most cases, their visions of development do not really go past their own personal interests and the interest of the group where they belong to. For many politicians and government officials in both Vietnam and Malaysia, politics and governance is but a means to stay in power and protect their own interests. On the other hand, although there are also a number of people in the Vietnamese and the Malaysian governments that are for the development of the country as a whole, the efforts of these people are often misguided and do not really produce the desired impact into the lives of the people at the grassroots level. For instance, in Malaysia, the thrust of the government to unify the country resulted in the degra dation of culture and diversity among its people. This study outlines that international forces play a big role in the policies that the national governments formulate. In past years, the demand for integration and globalization forces the national governments of developing countries to rethink their priorities and come up with policies that will make their countries globally competitive. The idea that a country could not survive if it does not conform to the requirements of globalization sent the governments scrambling for national development frameworks that will user changes especially in the countryside.Ã
Monday, February 10, 2020
Different experience of two passengers in the airplane - Essay Example Here the essay indicates one personÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective upon the entering the plane and allowing the cramped space of the seating to ruin their experience throughout the flight. Conversely, the point of view of the other passenger is not as adversely affected by the cramped seating. In this example, the essay states, Ã¢â¬Å"When the passengers took their seats and reached towards the magazines in front of them they settled into what would become a wonderful airplane ride across the Atlantic Ocean. While the airplane wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as large as traditional airliners it had a number of charming elements that made it more enjoyable than other flight methods.Ã¢â¬ These examples not only demonstrate how one passenger can perceive things differently from the simple nature of their physical size (as one space is cramped for person one, but not person two), but also rhetorically demonstrate that this experience shaded the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the entire trip. Another rhetorica l strategy that was implemented was showing how different people could interpret the same event in different ways. In terms of these essays, they demonstrated how the talking and general noise that occurred during the flight was interpreted differently, with the first passenger finding them irritating and the second enjoying them. Ultimately, these rhetorical elements demonstrate the means by which the same event, when experienced by different people, can be perceived in entirely different ways.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
African Americans Consequence Essay The African Americans played a major role before and after the Civil War, beginning from 1861 to 1870, which helped shape the course and consequences of the Civil War. In determining how African Americans shaped the course and consequences of the Civil War, one must assess how African Americans were given more opportunities. Politically, African Americans began to have a role in voting and to have the President and Republican Party fight for their full freedom. Socially, the African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s class began to be looked at differently. Ideologically, the African Americans were being looked at as equal and made sure that people knew they were people too. Although African Americans had to continue to fight for their equality, they did, in fact, shape the course and consequences of the Civil War by having political, ideological, and social actions. African Americans had no rights to vote or involve themselves in politics but that changed after the Civil War. Giving African Americans the right to vote shaped the consequences of the Civil War by African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s views being looked at as well. On August 1865, the Convention of the Colored People of Virginia was proceeded which claimed that since African Americans are free, they deserve to vote (Doc H). The African Americans spoke of being given suffrage, and then they were given the right to vote. This shaped a consequence of the Civil War because the African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s views were no longer over looked. During the Civil War, no one J. Crespo P a g e | 2 paid attention to what the African Americans wanted but afterward, they were granted the voice to speak about what they wanted. After being heard and given the right to vote, the African Americans had participation in Constitutional Conventions. A map shows the following: the participation of African Americans and Whites in Constitutional Conventions during 1867-1868. (Doc J). Politically, the whites did not want to be overtaken by the African Americans, so they had a larger participation to overrule the African Americans. The whites wanted a powerful Democratic Party that supported their wanting. The African Americans still participated in the conventions to make sure the Republic Party was strong enough to continue to give the African American their rights. African Americans participating in the Constitutional Conventions shaped one of the consequences of the Civil War by not letting whites take over the political system. Not only did the African Americans have a consequence politically with being heard and not having white supremacy, politically African Americans were also given their freedom. African Americans were being given their freedom. Politically, African Americans were being granted a change in society. Abraham Lincoln published a letter on August 26, 1863 that proposed the following: the African Americans as a whole, everywhere, should be granted their freedom for they fought for the North (Doc C). Abraham Lincoln was trying to persuade the Whites to agree on freedom for the African Americans in the United States. African Americans were being freed everywhere instead of just the North. Politically, this helped the African Americans tremendously because they were going to be freed everywhere. One of the consequences was African Americans being freed in the North, but then African Americans were going to be freed everywhere, including the South. After the letter sent out by Abraham Lincoln, the Republican Party decided to try to get an amendment that freed all African Americans. In 1864, the Republican PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s platform stated the following: they wanted an Amendment to J. Crespo P a g e | 3 officially end slavery everywhere (Doc D). Politically, the African Americans were beginning to be seen as people throughout the nation. This consequence after the Civil War proved that African Americans were no longer going to be slaves anywhere. African Americans found their freedom with the help of the political power of Abraham Lincoln and Republican Party. Then the African Americans were socially looked at differently. The African Americans were no longer such a low class because people began to look at them differently and notice the good things about African Americans. Socially, the African Americans were being helped by the people. On July 30 1861 General Benjamin F. Butler reported to the secretary of the war stating the following: the African Americans should be free since they are a part of the North (Doc A). Socially, the North no longer presented the African Americans as property. This shaped the Civil War because the African Americans became part of the Union that fought for the North. Then after the Civil War was won and the African Americans were freed, their school system proved them socially equal and good as the whites. In March 1864, Charlotte Forten, an African American teacher in South Carolina Sea Islands, said the following: she spoke of how happy the African American children were to learn and how much knowledge they have attained (Doc E). Socially, the African Americans were no longer looked at as less smart than the Whites. The consequence of the Civil War with the African Americans socially with schools showed their equality to whites. Socially, the African Americans were no longer looked at as slaves or less knowledgeable. The African Americans, ideologically, were no longer looked as property. The African Americans were beginning to be looked at the same as the whites. The African Americans no longer were looked at as property. Ideologically, the African Americans caused a consequence of the Civil War to be looked at as people. On March 7, 1864 in The New J. Crespo P a g e | 4 York Times it stated the following: African Americans have gone through a drastic change to now be free Americans in the United States equal to the whites (Doc F). The African Americans were no longer the property they were once known of; African Americans were people just as the Whites. Ideologically, this proved that a consequence of the Civil War was the change of equality that African Americans had. After The New York Times had posted the article, Thomas Nast from HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s Weekly on August 5 1865 had posted the following: a picture of lady liberty standing next to an African American Union Solider asking Ã¢â¬Å"And Not This Man? Ã¢â¬ (Doc G). Ideologically, the picture proved that the people no longer were going to look at African Americans as property so they should be treated equal. The North wanted the South to have the same thoughts about African Americans. This set a consequence of the Civil War by having the African Americans no longer being looked at as slaves as they were when the war had begun. After the African Americans were no longer looked at as property, the African Americans made sure the Whites thought of them as people no matter what. African Americans were going to deal with racism and injustice but they made sure that the whites knew they were people also. Ideologically, the African American consequence after the Civil War was that African Americans are people, not slaves nor property. On August 20 1862 in New York during the resolution of African Americans in Newtown, African Americans stated the following: they wanted to make sure that the President knew that they were not going to leave because the United States was their country also that they were going to fight in for their freedom (Doc B). This constructed the course of the Civil War because the African Americans began fighting in the Civil War. Ideologically, African Americans were looked at as people in the nation of the United States to fight along the Whites for their freedom and country. After the Civil War, when African Americans were no longer slaves and granted their freedom, some J. Crespo P a g e | 5 whites resisted the full freedom of African Americans. In 1867 with Rebecca Parsons she went through the following: she went back to receive her kindred since she was a free slave but the owner would not allow her to because they were Ã¢â¬Å"hisÃ¢â¬ (Doc I). Although, Parsons did not allow Rebecca her children it proved that Parsons realized she was also people because she demanded them back from him. Rebecca is no longer a slave who has to stand down, she also had rights which proved she is as equal as Parsons. Ideologically, after the Civil War this was a consequence by African Americans no longer being looked at differently because they were people also. African Americans ideologically created the course and consequence of the Civil War by being looked at as people and not slaves. African Americans shaped the course and consequences of the Civil War by ideological, social, and political reasoning. African Americans were known in the United States as slaves and property but they no longer were during and after the Civil War. They became people of equality to the whites in the United States. They no longer had no say in politics; they were given rights and opportunities to speak of their views. They no longer were viewed as property but people. Also, they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t the low class everyone had always labeled them as. African Americans helped the Union win the war to win themselves the freedom they deserved.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Vertigo The Alfred Hitchcock film; Vertigo is a narrative film that is a perfect example of a Hollywood Classical Film. I will be examining the following characteristics of the film Vertigo: 1)individual characters who act as casual agents, the main characters in Vertigo, 2)desire to reach to goals, 3)conflicts, 4)appointments, 5)deadlines, 6)James StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s focus shifts and 7)Kim NovakÃ¢â¬â¢s characters drives the action in the film. Most of the film is viewed in the 3rd person, except for the reaction shots (point of view shot) which are seen through the eyes of the main character.(1st person) The film has a strong closure and uses continuity editing(180 degree rule). The stylistic (technical) film form of Vertigo makes the film much more enjoyable. The stylistic film form includes camera movements, editing, sound, mise-en-scene and props. Vertigo is an Alfred Hitchcock film that was made in 1958. It stars James Stewart as Detective John Ferguson and Kim Novak as Madeleine Ellester and Judy Barden. In Vertigo, John Ferguson has a fear of heights that results in the death of his partner. Due to this situation, he leaves the police force and became a Private Investigator. Ferguson is contact by Gavin Ellester an old college buddy. Gavin asks Ferguson to follow his wife who he believes has gone mad. Gavin believes his wife Madeleine is being possessed by her great grandmother Corlata Valdez. He explains why he has come to this conclusion and fills John Ferguson in on all the details of the case. Mr. Ferguson questions the integrity of the story, but still accepts the case. When he starts to spy on Madeleine, he begins to notice changes in her personality and similarities to Corlata Valdez's past. One day when John Ferguson was following Madeleine, he saw her jump into San Francisco Bay. After he rescued her, he brought her back to his house and cared for her. Afterwards he and Madeleine started to spend time together. They began to fall in love and Madeleine became more insane. She started to see images from Corlata's past. Madeleine started to live the life of Corlata Valdez and had visions from her life. One day John and Madeleine went to an old Spanish missionary outside San Francisco, which Madeleine had seen in one of her images. When they arrived at their destination Madeleine began to remember things from Corlata's early life and became hyster... ... the mise-en-scene are the from the beginning of the film. Throughout the film I was aware of the locations. The San Francisco setting was presented to the viewer in the beginning and that made the audience more aware of the film's environment. The monastery and other locations of Corlata's past gave me a better understanding of MadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢s problem. The make-up and costume play an important part in the recreation scenes, while the props assisted the audience and John Ferguson in piecing the puzzle together and figuring out GainÃ¢â¬â¢s plan. The lighting enhanced many scenes in the film. The parts that impressed me were the following: the recreation of Madeleine scene, John's dream sequence, the monastery scenes, Judy's guilt trip and the scenes involving John's fear of heights. In conclusion, all these factors made Vertigo a great film and made it much more enjoyable for the audience. All the Hollywood Classical Film characteristics that are used in the film enhance the power of Vertigo. Everyone should see Vertigo, since it is a perfect example of a Hollywood Classical Film. In my opinion Alfred Hitchcock was a genius and Vertigo is one of the greatest Hollywood films ever created.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Health inequalities are defined as the differences in wellness attention or in the distribution of wellness determiners between different population groups ( Woodward & A ; Kawachi 2000 ) . Health inequalities can be breakdown in to four key subdivisions. The first 1 is inequalities are unjust. Inequalities in wellness are unwanted to the extent that they are unjust besides unfair. Inequalities become Ã¢â¬Å" unjust Ã¢â¬ when deprived wellness is itself the effect of an unfair distribution of the societal determiners of wellness. For case the mortality rates between people from different societal categories or unequal chances in instruction and employment. The 2nd is inequalities affect every society. Condition that lead to tag wellness disparities are damaging to all members of society. Some types of wellness inequalities have clear effects on the remainder of society, such as the effects of intoxicant and drug abuse, the spread of infective diseases, or the happening of force an d offense. The 3rd is inequalities are evitable. Disparities in wellness are evitable to the extent that they branch from identifiable policy option exercised by authoritiess for illustration ordinance of concern and labor, revenue enhancement policy, public assistance benefits and wellness attention support. The last 1 is intercessions to cut down wellness inequalities are cost effectual. A public wellness programme that reduces wellness inequalities can besides be cost effectual. The instance can be made to give precedence to certain programmes for case, heightening entree to cervical malignant neoplastic disease screen in low income adult females on efficiency evidences. In contrast, few programmes designed to cut down wellness inequalities have been officially evaluated utilizing cost effectivity analysis.History of Health inequalitiesHealth inequalities have been known since the societal and public wellness reform of the 19th century, when Chadwick and Rowntree began to document them. It was grounds on societal inequalities an d of unequal entree to wellness attention in Britain that provided the force per unit area to put up the public assistance province and the National Health Service in the post-war period. An rating in the late-1970s illustrate that Britain was falling behind other states in wellness betterment, despite 30 old ages of the public assistance province. This led to the Black Report in 1980 on inequalities in wellness. The Black Report demonstrated that although overall wellness had improved since the debut of the public assistance province, there still remained widespread wellness inequalities. It besides highlighted the chief cause of these inequalities was economic inequality. The study found that decease rate for work forces in societal category V was twice that for work forces in societal category I therefore demoing the spread between the two was increasing, non cut downing as was expected ( Carter, 2002 ) . The Acheson Report was published 18 old ages after the Black Report, but both show comparing. The Acheson study present a contrast to The Black Report in that it illustrates the troubles of undertaking wellness inequalities despite seemingly improved status.Conveyance and country of abodesConveyance is critical in enabling entree to people, goods and services, therefore promotes wellness straight through the accomplishment and care of societal webs. Forms of conveyance, such as walking and cycling promote wellness straight by increased physical activity and decrease of fleshiness. A deficiency of conveyance may take to damaged wellness by denying entree to people, goods and services and by deviating resources from other necessities. In add-on, conveyance may damage wellness straight, most notably by inadvertent hurt and air pollution. Sing conveyance in a inequalities facets, deficiency of entree to transport is experienced disproportionately by handicapped people, older people and people socioeconomic position, peculiarly single life in distant or rural countries ( Elgar, 2006 ) . For case, single life in council house where hapless entree to transport may restrict work and preparation chance. An addition in monetary values and a limited scope of goods available to persons whose deficiency of entree to transport denies them chances to shop for necessities. Environmental barriers in entree to transport experienced by people with physical disablements. Deprived urban countries tend to be characterised by high traffic volume, taking to increased degrees of noise and air pollution and important rates of route traffic accidents without the benefits of entree to private conveyance. The cost of rail and local coach menus has addition well Campbell ( 2005 ) studies that about one 3rd in existent footings since 1990. This in bend has had the most impact on those single with lower income. Bettering public conveyance may take to improved entree to people and installations fundamental to wellness, such as store, parks wellness attention friends and households. This consecutively should take to betterment in quality of life and wellness. The authorities policies Ã¢â¬Å" Better conveyance Ã¢â¬ place a increasing in usage of public conveyance by the general population would in bend lessenings air and noise pollution. The Independent enquiry into Inequalities in Health Report recommends the farther development of a high quality public conveyance system which is integrated with other signifiers of conveyance which is a sensible monetary value to single. A lessening in the usage of vehicles would take to a decrease of accidents.UnemploymentEmployment and unemployment is a important factor taking to ill wellness. Carter ( 2002 ) surveies emphasise that non merely is employment a primary beginning of position in Western states, but it is besides important in supplying intent , societal support, construction to life and a agency of take parting in society. Therefore if the person is unemployed this can be a possible major hazard to wellness for the population of working age and their households. In 1997 the international Labour Office stated two million people were unemployed in the UK, besides around a 3rd of unemployed adult females and half of all unemployed work forces had been unemployed for one twelvemonth or more. The bulk of unemployment persons tend to hold a important inauspicious consequence psychological and physiological wellbeing. This can include symptoms of anxiousness and depression to self-harm and self-destruction ( Wildmen, 2003 ) . In relation to physical wellness, unemployment brings a important hazard of morbidity and premature mortality. Johnson, ( 2008 ) place that all major mortality causes was systematically higher than mean among unemployed work forces. He besides found that unemployed adult females had higher mortality from coronary bosom disease, hurts and self-destruction. There are many to better an single wellness during the clip they are unemployment. Bettering fiscal support during unemployment can increase living conditions and resources needed for wellness, including entree to nutrient, shelter and warming. Being unemployed may besides better their ability to by apart of their communities cut downing societal exclusion ( Richter, 2005 ) . Government policies aimed at the creative activity of employment chances, apprenticeship for immature unemployed people, improved degrees of instruction and preparation for immature unemployed people. De Vogli, ( 2009 ) place cardinal factor is the remotion of barriers to work for parents with dependent kids. This should better the opportunities of wellness increasing employment opportunities in add-on to other good effects on wellness and its determiners such as income and lodgingEducationEducation has the chance to play numerical functions in act uponing inequalities in wellness. It has an of import function in act uponing inequalities in socioeconomic place. Educational makings determines an person Ã¢â¬Ës labor market place, therefore act uponing at that place income, lodging and other material assets. As a effect, instruction is a traditional path out of poorness for single life in hapless community. Education besides has a function in fixing kids for life. For illustration, guaranting person has the practical, societal and emotional cognition and accomplishments to make a full and healthy life. It has a societal function in fixing kids to lend to the full in society. This can affect educating them about utilizing services, doing kids aware of their democratic rights and duties ( Bromberg, 2003 ) . Sing instruction in an inequalities facets, kids from hapless backgrounds is measured by being in reception of free school dinners. They are found to hold lower educational accomplishment that their equals. Mana & A ; Huston, ( 2008 ) place kids on free school dinners as an index of poorness. They conducted research screening that a high per centum of students eligible for free school dinners have a low per centum of students with a least five base on ballss at GCSE level A star to C. Higher proportions of students in School exclusion and hooky are associated with increased engagement in offense and other harmful activities. In the long term, school exclusion and hooky are associated with unemployment, homelessness, adolescent gestation and captivity ( Mana & A ; Huston, 2008 ) The Independent enquiry into Inequalities in Health Report recommends the proviso of extra resources for schools functioning kids from disadvantage groups to heighten their educational accomplishment. The Revenue Support Grant expression and other support mechanisms should be reviewed more to reflect demands and socioeconomic disadvantage. This is likely, but non convinced to be accompanied by a decrease in inequalities in accident rates.Promotional Intervention and PoliciesThe Government has besides played its portion through a scope of national programmes. These include Certain Start designed to back up the development of pre-school kids from disadvantage households. Change4Life prevents households from going corpulence and the National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal which developed to back up an incorporate attack to regeneration in the most disadvantaged communities. The UK Fuel Poverty Strategy which supports lodging betterments targeted at vulnerable family.Change4LifeIs a promotional run that aims to forestall people from going overweight by promoting them to eat better and by more activate. It is the marketing constituent of the Government Ã¢â¬Ës response to the addition in fleshiness in the UK. The run aims to animate a social motion in which person Ã¢â¬Ës who has an involvement in forestalling fleshin ess, such as concern, health care professionals, school, charities, households or persons can play their portion. The Change4life advertisement run launched in January 2009 and in the early phases targeted immature households with kids aged 5-11 old ages. Six months in Change4life had a great response from immature households. 85 % of female parents reported that the run makes them see about their kids Ã¢â¬Ës wellness, and over 360,000 households have already signed up in order to follow a healthier life style ( Department of wellness, 2009 ) .Certain StartCertain start is a promotional run that brings family-support services for households with kids under 5 old ages old. Their purpose is to undertake child poorness and societal exclusion working with parents, attentions and kids to advance the rational, physical and societal development of babes and immature kids so that they can boom at place and when they are go toing school. Certain Start coaction with service suppliers from the statutory sector like wellness, societal services and early instruction, community administrations and parents t hemselves. There provide integrated services for immature kids and their households based on what local kids need and parents want.National Strategy for vicinity reclamation policiesThe National Strategy for vicinity reclamation was created in 2001 and has two overall purposes. To cut down the spread between the most disadvantaged vicinities and the remainder of England and in the worst vicinities to accomplish less offense, better wellness and better educational making. A cardinal construct is that vicinities should non be below a certain degree. This degree cover the full scope of Government activity and many are incorporated into the relevant Public Service Agreements for illustration wellness, instruction and income.UK Fuel Poverty StrategyThe UK Fuel Poverty Strategy was established in 2001. It chiefly focuses is to better energy efficiency and cut down the costs of fuel for fuel in hapless families, since the income steps which form portion of a long term solution are being ad dressed in wider poorness and societal exclusion policies. To accomplish these marks, a scope of programmes and steps have been put in topographic point. This include go oning action to prolong the downward force per unit area on fuel measures, guaranting just intervention for perverse households, and back uping the development of energy industry initiatives to battle fuel poorness. To go on action to cut down poorness and societal exclusion recognizing that these are assorted jobs. In decision it is clear that wellness inequalities are a important concern in Britain. The instance survey shows how wellness inequalities are relentless and hard to alter. They are besides widening and are likely to make so unless we do things otherwise. This means turn toing non merely the short-run effects of evitable sick wellness, but besides the longer-term causes. The Government and assorted national programmes are determined to assist cut down wellness inequalities in Britain by making a fairer and more merely society that will let all single and communities to profit more equitably from public services investing.
Monday, January 6, 2020
1.1 Introduction So far as the minorities in India are concerned Muslims are the largest minority in the country. Majority of this community is educationally and economically extremely backward. Almost all other minorities are educationally and economically better off. Unfortunately Muslims have not been able to get their due share in total welfare work done by the Government, for economically weaker sections of the society in the country since independence. Different Governments appointed committees time to time to find out the causes of educational and economic backwardness of Muslims. Among these communities the latest one is the Sachar Committee. The committee has clearly revealed that only 4 per cent Muslim population is educatedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Despite constitutional guarantees of equality and social justice and socio-economic and educational development in the country, large numbers of Indian Muslims are either unemployed or associated with manual low paid occupations both in vil lages and cities. Rapidly increasing communalism and frequently occurring communal Violence in different parts of the country make their economic condition fragile and vulnerable as well as multiply their woes and agony. Both NSSO and Sachar Committee Report provide a broad spectrum investigation into the socio-economic status of Muslims in India, and look into the roots of their disadvantaged conditions of life. In an informative article published in The Hindu in 2004, Asha Krishnakumar points out that socio-economic condition of a majority of Muslims is worse than those of Hindus. Some 59 per cent of Muslim women have not attended school; 60 per cent were married by the age of 17 and hardly 14 per cent registered work participation. Overall, Muslims have literacy rate of 59.1 per cent, 5.7 percent lower than the national average. Hardly half the Muslim women are literate. While in Haryana, just about one-fifth of Muslim women are literate, the figure is about one third in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Nagaland and Jammu and Kashmir. In 15 States, the literacy level among Muslim women is less than 50 per cent. Muslims register the lowest work participation rate of 31.3 per cent, and just about